Barthes, R. (1967), Elements of Semiology, London: Cape.
Kress, G. (1998), "Visual and verbal modes of representation in electronically mediated communication: the potentials of new forms of text", in I. Snyder (ed.), Page to screen : taking literacy into the electronic era, London: Routledge.
Kress, G. and T. van Leeuwen. (1996), Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design, London: Routledge.
Landow, G.P. (1997), Hypertext 2.0, Baltimore, Maryland: John Hopkins University Press.
Nattiez, J. (1990), Music and Discourse: Toward a Semiology of Music, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
O'Toole, M. (1994), The Language of Displayed Art, London: Leicester University Press.